Background: Renal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in populations
with HIV infection. Widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy has altered the
spectrum of renal disease. Studies among the HIV affected population in India are few.
Objectives: The study was carried out to determine the various histopathological lesions
in HIV patients with renal dysfunction, undergoing a renal biopsy, and to establish the
Patients and Methods: Thirty HIV-positive patients, diagnosed by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method according to the National AIDS Control
Organization (NACO) guidelines, undergoing a renal biopsy for renal dysfunction were
studied. Descriptive statistics were applied.
Results: Rather than the classic human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy
(HIVAN) or a few prototypical lesions, the cases were spread across the entire spectrum
of glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathologies described in the HIV population. A higher
proportion of diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy and chronic interstitial nephritis
were encountered in the present study.
Conclusions: In the present scenario of increasing incidence of HIV infection, studying its
various manifestations are relevant. As none of the clinical or laboratory variables are
found to predict glomerular versus non-glomerular lesions on biopsy, a renal biopsy is
indicated in renal dysfunction associated with HIV, to make an accurate diagnosis and for