ISSN: 2251-8363    eISSN: 2251-8819  
J Nephropathol. 2012;1(3):143-151.
doi:10.5812/nephropathol.8109
PMID: 24475405
PMCID: PMC3886156

Scopus id: 84874748042

Review Article

ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy

Zohreh Rahimi 1 *

1 Medical Biology Research Center and Department of Biochemistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
*Corresponding author: Dr. Zohreh Rahimi. Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. P.O.Box: 67148-69914. Telephone:+98-831-4274618-21, Fax: +98-831-4276471, Email: zrahimi@kums.ac.ir

Abstract

Context: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II.

Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched.

Results: The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype.

Conclusions: In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

The presence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with highest systemic and renal ACE levels, compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. Most studies confirmed that ACE I/D polymorphism is involved in the susceptibility to overt nephropathy with protective role of ACE II genotype against the disease in both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Please cite this paper as: Rahimi Z.ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy. J Nephropathology.2012; 1(3): 143-151. DOI: 10.5812/nephropathol.8109

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First published online: 01 Oct 2012
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